Although they promote winter survival in planta, these dual-function AFPs proteins lose activity when stored at subzero temperatures in vitro, so we examined their stability in solutions containing CaCl2, MgCl2, or NaCl. Antifreeze activity was unaffected by salts before freezing, but decreased after freezing and thawing in CaCl2 and was recovered by adding a chelator. Furthermore, antifreeze activity can be easily maintained in vitro by including a chelator during frozen storage.

The efficacy of rye Secale cereale and wheat Triticum aestivum winter cover crops and cotton stalk and root destruction i. The effect of removing debris from the field following root destruction also was evaluated. Cover crops did not suppress H. Cotton root destruction did not affect cotton stand or plant height the following year. Removing debris following root destruction did not lower H. This study suggests that a rye or wheat cover crop or cotton root destruction following harvest is ineffective for H.

Wheat and rye produced similar amounts of biomass, and both crops produced more biomass P Cover crops did not suppress H. Cotton root destruction lowered P rye or wheat cover crop or cotton root destruction following harvest is ineffective for H. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins. Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach.

To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. The main plot factor, cover crop, included a no cover crop control, oat Avena sativa L. Cover crop biomass of 0. In general, OSR increased soil mineral N during cover crop growth and into the succeeding summer tomato growing season, while the remaining cover crops did not differ from the no cover crop control.

The lack of a cover crop by N rate interaction in soil and plant N analyses at harvest suggests that growers may not need to modify N fertilizer rates to tomatoes based on cover crop type. Processing tomato fruit quality at harvest rots, insect or disease damage, Agtron colour, pH, or natural tomato soluble solids NTSS was not affected by cover crop type. In both years, marketable yield in the no cover crop treatment was lower or not statistically different than all planted cover crops. Thus, results from a systems-based approach suggest that the cover crops tested had no observed negative impact on processing tomato production and have the potential to increase marketable yield and profit margins.

Cover crop frequency and compost effects on a legume- rye cover crop during 8 years of organic vegetables. Organic matter inputs from compost or cover crops CC are important to maintain or improve soil quality, but their impact in high-value vegetable production systems are not well understood. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of CC frequency every winter versus every 4th winter and yard-waste co Throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed CBW , which is located in the mid-Atlantic US, winter cover crop use has been emphasized, and federal and state cost-share programs are available to farmers to subsidize the cost of cover crop establishment.

A physically based watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool SWAT , was calibrated and validated using water quality monitoring data to simulate hydrological processes and agricultural nutrient cycling over the period of To accurately simulate winter cover crop biomass in relation to growing conditions, a new approach was developed to further calibrate plant growth parameters that control the leaf area development curve using multitemporal satellite-based measurements of species-specific winter cover crop performance. Multiple SWAT scenarios were developed to obtain baseline information on nitrate loading without winter cover crops and to investigate how nitrate loading could change under different winter cover crop planting scenarios, including different species, planting dates, and implementation areas.

The simulation results indicate that winter cover crops have a negligible impact on the water budget but significantly reduce nitrate leaching to groundwater and delivery to the waterways. Without winter cover crops, annual nitrate loading from agricultural lands was approximately 14 kg ha-1, but decreased to 4. Rye cover crop effects on direct and indirect nitrous oxide emissions. Winter cover crops can have a pronounced effect on N cycling in agricultural ecosystems. By reducing available soil mineral N during active growth and by providing a substrate for denitrifying bacteria after they are killed, cover crops can potentially influence soil N2O emissions.

However, there ha Effects of seeding rate and poultry litter on weed suppression from a rolled cereal rye cover crop. Growing enough cover crop biomass to adequately suppress weeds is one of the primary challenges in reduced-tillage systems that rely on mulch-based weed suppression. We investigated two approaches to increasing cereal rye biomass for improved weed suppression: 1 increasing soil fertility and 2 i Expression of allelopathy in the soil environment: Soil concentration and activity of benzoxazinoid compounds released by rye cover crop residue.

The activity of allelopathic compounds is often reduced in the soil environment where processes involving release from donor plant material, soil adsorption and degradation, and uptake by receptor plants naturally result in complex interactions. Rye Secale cereale L. Yield in Monoculture.

Effect of climate change on plant cultivation. A rozs Secale cereale L. Relationship between "year effect" and state of nutrition in a long-term winter rye experiment. Climate fluctuations and the effects of N fertilizer on the yield of rye Secale cereale L. Plant Production. Rainfall and fertilization effects on crops yield in a global climate change.

In: Proc. October Part 3. Disasters as drought-, and rainfall excess and artificial fertilization effects on crop yield.

Maya-astrologinen kesäkuu 2016

July Artificial fertilizers and climate change impacts on crops yield. Thrips Thysanoptera: Thripidae mitigation in seedling cotton using strip tillage and winter cover crops. Thrips are the most consistent insect pests of seedling cotton in the southeastern United States, where symptoms can range from leaf curling to stand loss.

In a 2 year study, thrips adults and immatures were sampled at 14, 21 and 28 days after planting on cotton planted with a thiamethoxam seed treatment in concert with crimson clover, wheat or rye winter cover crops and conventional or strip tillage to investigate potential differences in thrips infestations. Densities of adult thrips, primarily Frankliniella fusca Hinds , peaked on the first sampling date, whereas immature densities peaked on the second sampling date.

Regardless of winter cover crop, plots that received strip tillage experienced significantly fewer thrips at each sampling interval. In addition, assessment of percentage ground cover 42 days after planting showed that there was more than twice as much ground cover in the strip-tilled plots compared with conventionally tilled plots. Correlation analyses showed that increased ground cover was inversely related to thrips densities that occurred on all three sampling dates in and the final sampling date in Growers who utilize strip tillage and a winter cover crop can utilize seed treatments for mitigation of early-season thrips infestation.

Rye cover crop effects on soil quality in no-till corn silage-soybean cropping systems. Corn and soybean farmers in the upper Midwest are showing increasing interest in winter cover crops. Known benefits of winter cover crops include reductions in nutrient leaching, erosion prevention, and weed suppression; however, the effects of winter cover crops on soil quality in this region have Effect of length of interval between cereal rye cover crop termination and corn planting on seedling root disease and corn growth. Cereal rye cover crops terminated immediately before corn planting can sometimes reduce corn population, early growth, and yield.

We hypothesized that cereal rye may act as a green bridge for corn pathogens and may increase corn seedling root disease. A field experiment was conducted over two years Malone, R. Planting winter cover crops such as winter rye Secale cereale L. Because availability of replicated tile-drained field data is limited and because use of cover crops to reduce nitrate loss has only been tested over a few years with limited environmental and management conditions, estimating the impacts of cover crops under the range of expected conditions is difficult.

If properly tested against observed data, models can objectively estimate the relative effects of different weather conditions and agronomic practices e. In this study, an optimized winter wheat cover crop growth component was integrated into the calibrated RZWQM-DSSAT hybrid model and then we compare the observed and simulated effects of a winter cover crop on nitrate leaching losses in subsurface drainage water for a corn-soybean rotation with N fertilizer application rates over kg N ha-1 in corn years.

Annual observed and simulated flow-weighted average nitrate concentration FWANC in drainage from to for the cover crop treatments CC were 8. Simulations with the optimized model at various N fertilizer rates resulted in average annual drainage N loss differences between CC and CON to increase exponentially from 12 to 34 kg N ha-1 for rates of 11 to kg N ha The results suggest that RZWQM-DSSAT is a promising tool to estimate the relative effects of a winter crop under different conditions on nitrate loss in tile drains and that a winter cover crop can effectively reduce nitrate losses over a range of N fertilizer levels.

Effect of winter cover crops on soil nitrogen availability, corn yield, and nitrate leaching. Biculture of nonlegumes and legumes could serve as cover crops for increasing main crop yield, while reducing NO3 leaching. This study, conducted from to , determined the effect of monocultured cereal rye Secale cereale L. The field had been in corn and cover crop rotation since In addition to the cover crop treatments, there were four N fertilizer rates 0, 67, , and kg N ha -1 , referred to as N0, N1, N2, and N3, respectively applied to corn.

The experiment was a randomized split-block design with three replications for each treatment. Lysimeters were installed in at 0. The result showed that vetch monoculture had the most influence on soil N availability and corn yield, followed by the bicultures. Rye or ryegrass monoculture had either no effect or an adverse effect on corn yield and soil N availability. Leachate NO3-N concentration was highest where vetch cover crop was planted regardless of N rates, which suggests that N mineralization of vetch N continued well into the fall and winter. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water standard of 10 mg N l -1 even at recommended N rate for corn in this region coastal Pacific Northwest.

The amount of N available for leaching determined based on the presidedress nitrate test, the amount of N fertilizer applied, and N uptake correlated well with average NO3-N during. Rye residue levels affect suppression of the southern root-knot nematode in cotton. In the southeastern United States, rye Secale cereale is frequently planted as a winter cover crop in conservation tillage cotton.

Although rye produces toxic benzoxazinoid compounds which may play a role in nematode suppression, it is also a host for the southern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne i Stem rust Puccinia graminis f. Out of these, pathotypes were detected and only 56 pathotypes occurred more than once.

This high diversity was confirmed by a Simpson index of 1. In parallel, we investigated stem rust resistance among and within heterogeneous rye populations originating mainly from Russia, Poland, Austria, and the United States across 3 to 15 environments location-year combinations. While German rye populations had an average stem rust severity of Fertilizer effects on a winter cereal cover crop. Benefits associated with conservation tillage in the Southeast are improved by using a winter cereal cover crop.

In general, cover crop benefits increase as biomass production is increased, but the infertile soils typically require additional N inorganic or organic. Currently, limited informatio The concentration of benzoxazinoids BX was measured in field soils at selected intervals after rye residue was either incorporated or left on the soil surface. The spectrum of compounds arising in the soil persisted approximately two weeks and was dominated by methoxy containing BX compounds, which were only minor components of the rye foliage.

Growth assays with lettuce and smooth pigweed species showed inhibition when treated soils were tested during the first two weeks after rye applications; however, there were no sufficient concentrations of any one BX compound in the soil to explain these affects. Spring-summer temperatures reconstructed for northern Switzerland and southwestern Germany from winter rye harvest dates, This paper presents a unique yr long documentary data-based reconstruction of spring-summer MAMJJ temperatures for northern Switzerland and south-western Germany from to It is composed of 25 partial series of winter grain secale cereale harvest starting dates WGHD that are partly based on harvest related bookkeeping of institutions hospitals, municipalities , partly on early phenological observations.

The resulting main Basel WGHD series was homogenised with regard to dating style, data type and altitude. The latter result even suffers from the weak data base available for Temperature reconstructions based on WGHD are more influenced by spring temperatures than those based on grape harvest dates GHD , because rye in contrast to vines already begins to grow as soon as sunlight brings the plant to above freezing. The earliest and latest harvest dates were checked for consistency with narrative documentary weather reports.

Comparisons with other European documentary-based GHD and WGHD temperature reconstructions generally reveal significant correlations decreasing with the distance from Switzerland. Cellulosic biofuel potential of a winter rye double crop across the U. Interest in renewable energy sources derived from plant biomass is increasing, raising concern over fuel versus food competition. One strategy to produce additional cellulosic biomass without reducing food-harvest potential is to grow winter cover crops after harvest of the primary summer crop.

Forage radish winter cover crop suppresses winter annual weeds in fall and before corn planting. Forage radish Raphanus sativus L. The objective of this project was to characterize the repeatability, amount, and duration of weed suppression during and after a fall-planted forage radish cover crop and to quantify the sub Herbicide resistant Palmer amaranth has rapidly become a dominant weed management issue in agronomic crops of the Southeast U.

The small size of Palmer amaranth seeds, relative to other common weeds, provides an opportunity to use physical weed control through high-biomass, rolled cover crop mul Nitrate leaching from winter cereal cover crops using undisturbed soil-column lysimeters. Cover crops are important management practices for reducing nitrogen N leaching in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, which is under Total Maximum Daily Load restraints.

Cool-season annual grasses such as barley, rye , or wheat are common cover crops, but studies are needed to directly compare field ni Since the winter maxima had been relatively stable with the trend being only about Negative ice anomalies are shown to be dominant in and especially in the Arctic basin and correlated with winds and surface temperature anomalies during the same period. Progressively increasing winter temperatures in the central Arctic starting in is observed with significantly higher rates of increase in and The Atlantic Oscillation AO indices correlate weakly with the sea ice and surface temperature anomaly data but may explain the recent shift in the perennial ice cover towards the western region.

Results suggest that the trend in winter ice is finally in the process of catching up with that of the summer ice cover. Winter sky brightness and cloud cover at Dome A, Antarctica. Moore, Anna M. At the summit of the Antarctic plateau, Dome A offers an intriguing location for future large scale optical astronomical observatories. The Gattini Dome A project was created to measure the optical sky brightness and large area cloud cover of the winter -time sky above this high altitude Antarctic site. This automated wide field camera consists of an Apogee U interline CCD coupled to a Nikon fisheye lens enclosed in a heated container with glass window.

The system contains a filter mechanism providing a suite of standard astronomical photometric filters Bessell B, V, R and a long-pass red filter for the detection and monitoring of airglow emission. The system operated continuously throughout the , and winter seasons and part-way through the season, recording long exposure images sequentially for each filter. We have in hand one complete winter -time dataset returned via a manned traverse. We present here the first measurements of sky brightness in the photometric V band, cloud cover statistics measured so far and an estimate of the extinction.

No-till snap bean performance and weed response following rye and vetch cover crops. Fall-planted cover crops offer many benefits including weed suppressive residues in spring sown crops when controlled and left on the soil surface. However, vegetable growers have been slow to adapt direct seeding no-till into cover crop residues. Field studies were conducted in and near An early-killed rye cover crop has potential for weed management in edamame.

The potential role of fall-seeded cover crops for weed management in edamame is unknown. Field experiments were conducted over three edamame growing seasons to test the following objectives: 1 determine the extent to which cover crop residue management systems influence edamame emergence while sele Soil water improvements with the long-term use of a winter rye cover crop.

The Midwestern United States is projected to experience increasing rainfall variability. One approach to mitigate climate impacts is to utilize crop and soil management practices that enhance soil water storage, reducing the risks of flooding as well as drought-induced crop water stress.

While some One approach to mitigate climate impacts is to utilize crop and soil management practices that enhance Fungicide seed treatments for evaluating the corn seedling disease complex following a winter rye cover crop. We hypothesized that using different seed treatment combinations and assessing seedling disease incidence and severity Rye cover crop effects on nitrous oxide emissions from a corn-soybean system. Agricultural activities are a major source nitrous oxide emitted to the atmosphere. Development of management practices to reduce these emissions is needed.

Non-leguminous cover crops are efficient scavengers of residual soil nitrate, but their effects on nitrous oxide emissions have not been well d Effectiveness of oat and rye cover crops in reducing nitrate losses in drainage water. Much of the NO3 in the riverine surface waters of the upper Mississippi River basin originates from artificially drained agricultural land used for corn Zea mays L.

Cover crops grown between maturity and planting of these crops are one approach to r Genetic variation for resistance to ergot Claviceps purpurea [Fr. Ergot Claviceps purpurea [Fr. About 50 FSF were developed at random in each population, and the FSF of each population were evaluated in separate but adjacent experiments conducted in four environments under artificial inoculation. A mixture of conidia of C. The materials were manually harvested at yellow-ripe stage.

Resistance trait recorded was disease severity, i. Mean ergot severity ranged from 2. Significant genotypic variation P Breeding progress, variation, and correlation of grain and quality traits in winter rye hybrid and population varieties and national on-farm progress in Germany over 26 years. Grain yield of hybrid varieties and population varieties in official German variety trials increased by On-farm gain in grain yield Rye quality is subject to large year-to-year fluctuation. Increase in grain yield and decline of protein concentration did not negatively influence quality traits.

Performance progress of grain and quality traits of 78 winter rye varieties tested in official German trials to assess the value for cultivation and use VCU were evaluated during and We dissected progress into a genetic and a non-genetic component for hybrid and population varieties by applying mixed models, including regression components to model trends.

VCU trial results were compared with grain yield and quality data from a national harvest survey on-farm data. Yield gain for hybrid varieties was On-farm yield progress of Most of the yield progress was generated by genetic improvement. For hybrid varieties, ear density was the determining yield component, whereas for population varieties, it was thousand grain mass. Results for VCU trials showed no statistically significant gains or losses in rye quality traits.

For on-farm data, we found a positive but non-significant gain in falling number and amylogram viscosity and temperature. Grain yield was strongly negatively associated with protein concentration, yet was weakly to moderately positively associated with quality traits. In general, our results from VCU. Yang, Yi; Moore, A. At the summit of the Antarctic plateau, Dome A offers an intriguing location for future large scale optical astronomical Observatories. The Gattini DomeA project was created to measure the optical sky brightness and large area cloud cover of the winter -time sky above this high altitude Antarctic site.

This automated wide field camera consists of an Apogee U interline CCD coupled to a Nikon fish-eye lens enclosed in a heated container with glass window. The system contains a filter mechanism providing a suite of standard astronomical photometric filters Bessell B, V, R , however, the absence of tracking systems, together with the ultra large field of view 85 degrees and strong distortion have driven us to seek a unique way to build our data reduction pipeline. We present here the first measurements of sky brightness in the photometric B, V, and R band, cloud cover statistics measured during the winter season and an estimate of the transparency.

In addition, we present example light curves for bright targets to emphasize the unprecedented observational window function available from this ground-based location. Evaluating the relationship between biomass, percent groundcover and remote sensing indices across six winter cover crop fields in Maryland, United States.

Winter cover crops are an essential part of managing nutrient and sediment losses from agricultural lands. Cover crops lessen sedimentation by reducing erosion, and the accumulation of nitrogen in aboveground biomass results in reduced nutrient runoff. Winter cover crops are planted in the fall and are usually terminated in early spring, making them susceptible to senescence, frost burn, and leaf yellowing due to wintertime conditions.

This study sought to determine to what extent remote sensing indices are capable of accurately estimating the percent groundcover and biomass of winter cover crops, and to analyze under what critical ranges these relationships are strong and under which conditions they break down. Cover crop growth on six fields planted to barley, rye , ryegrass, triticale or wheat was measured over the winter growing season. Data collection included spectral reflectance measurements, aboveground biomass, and percent groundcover.

Restricting analysis to sampling dates before the onset of prolonged freezing temperatures and leaf yellowing resulted in increased estimation accuracy. The results of this study show that accounting for index saturation, senescence, and frost burn on leaves can greatly increase the accuracy of estimates of percent groundcover and biomass for winter cover crops.

Cover crop growth on six fields planted to barley, rye , ryegrass, triticale or wheat was measured over the — winter growing season. Winter severity determines functional trait composition of phytoplankton in seasonally ice- covered lakes. How climate change will affect the community dynamics and functionality of lake ecosystems during winter is still little understood. This is also true for phytoplankton in seasonally ice- covered temperate lakes which are particularly vulnerable to the presence or absence of ice.

We tested how phytoplankton taxa composition varied along a winter -severity gradient and to what extent winter severity shaped the functional trait composition of overwintering phytoplankton communities using multivariate statistical analyses and a functional trait-based approach. We hypothesized that overwintering phytoplankton communities are dominated by taxa with trait combinations corresponding to the prevailing winter water column conditions, using ice thickness measurements as a winter -severity indicator.

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Winter severity had little effect on univariate diversity indicators taxon richness and evenness , but a strong relationship was found between the phytoplankton community structure and winter severity when taxon trait identity was taken into account. Species responses to winter severity were mediated by the key functional traits: motility, nutritional mode, and the ability to form resting stages. Accordingly, one or the other of two functional groups dominated the phytoplankton biomass during mild winters i. Based on predicted milder winters for temperate regions and a reduction in ice- cover durations, phytoplankton communities during winter can be expected to comprise taxa that have a relative advantage when the water column is well mixed i.

A potential implication of this result is that winter severity promotes different. Spring-summer temperatures reconstructed for northern Switzerland and south-western Germany from winter rye harvest dates, This paper presents a unique yr long documentary data - based reconstruction of spring-summer MAMJJ temperatures for northern Switzerland and south western Germany from to It is composed of 25 partial series of winter grain secale cereale harvest starting dates WGHD that are in one part based on harvest related bookkeeping of institutions hospitals, municipalities , in the other part to early phenological observations.

The latter result even suffer from the weak data basis available for Weed science and management, in soil sciences, land cover , and land use. An integral component of conservation agriculture systems in cotton is the use of a high-residue winter cover crop; however, terminating such cover crops is a cost and planting into high-residue is a challenge. Black oat, rye , and wheat winter cover crops were flattened with a straight-blade mechan Cover crop biomass harvest for bioenergy: implications for crop productivity.

Winter cover crops, such as rye Secale cereale , are usually used in conservation agriculture systems in the Southeast. Typically, the cover crop is terminated two to three weeks before planting the summer crop, with the cover biomass left on the soil surface as a mulch. However, these cover crops Nutritional composition and in vitro digestibility of grass and legume winter cover crops. In dairy farming systems, growing winter crops for forage is frequently limited to annual grasses grown in monoculture.

The objectives of this study were to determine how cropping grasses alone or in mixtures with legumes affects the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of fresh and ensiled winter crops and the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of the subsequent summer crops. Experimental plots were planted with 15 different winter crops at 3 locations in Virginia. At each site, 4 plots of each treatment were planted in a randomized complete block design.

After harvesting the winter crops, corn and forage sorghum were planted within the same plots perpendicular to the winter crop plantings. The nutritional composition and the in vitro digestibility of winter and summer crops were determined for fresh and ensiled samples. Growing grasses in mixtures with CC increased forage dry matter DM yield 2.

Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes increased the crude protein concentration of the fresh forage from For neutral detergent fiber NDF concentrations, the interaction between grasses and legumes was significant for both fresh and ensiled forages. Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes decreased the concentration of sugars of fresh forages relative to grasses grown in monoculture. Primarily, this decrease can be.

Isolation of cultivation-resistant oomycetes, first detected as amplicon sequences, from roots of herbicide-terminated winter rye. The dynamics of microbial communities associated with dying cover crops are of interest because of potential impacts on disease in a subsequent crop, and because of the importance of microbial activity on plant residue to soil organic matter dynamics and nutrient cycling.

High throughput amplicon se Sanders-DeMott, R. Natural and managed ecosystems play a key role in climate through regulation of carbon dioxide, as well as their effects on other greenhouse gases, surface heat fluxes, and albedo. In the northeastern United States, winter air temperatures are rising more rapidly than mean annual temperatures and the depth and duration of seasonal snowpack is decreasing.

Although winter fluxes of carbon are small relative to the growing season, there is mounting evidence that biological processes in winter contribute significantly to annual ecosystem carbon budgets and that changes in winter conditions could lead to shifting patterns and magnitudes of seasonal carbon uptake. Our results suggest that forest carbon losses to the atmosphere in deciduous forests may increase during warm, snow-free winter conditions when vegetation is restricted in winter carbon uptake capacity by phenology.

However, non-forested vegetation such as perennial grasses have a greater potential to activate photosynthesis in winter and to take up carbon in the "dormant season," perhaps moderating. Characterizing cereal rye biomass and allometric relationships across a range of fall available nitrogen rates in the eastern United States.

Cereal rye Secale cereale L. These benefits hinge in large part on biomass production, which varies according to mult Cover crop and N fertilization may provide additional crop residue C and sustain soil C storage compared with no cover crop and N fertilization. The SOC increased at the rates of 0. Under sweet sorghum, SOC also increased linearly at all depths from to , regardless of cover crops.

Nitrogen fertilization had little effect on SOC. Cover crop options and mixes for the upper midwest. The implementation of cover crops in Iowa has the potential to decrease soil erosion, weed populations, and the loss of nutrients. This research explores 16 different cover crop treatments planted a The efficacy of winter cover crops to stabilize soil inorganic nitrogen after fall-applied anhydrous ammonia. There is a dearth of knowledge on the ability of cover crops to increase the effectiveness of fall-applied nitrogen N.

The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of two cover crop species to stabilize inorganic soil N after a fall application of N. Fall N was applied at a rate of kg N ha into living stands of cereal rye , tillage radish, and a control no cover crop at the Illinois State University Research and Teaching Farm in Lexington, Illinois. Cover crops were sampled to determine N uptake, and soil samples were collected in the spring at four depths to 80 cm to determine the distribution of inorganic N within the soil profile.

Tillage radish This study has demonstrated that fall applying N into a living cover crop stand has the potential to reduce the vulnerability of soil nitrate and to stabilize a greater concentration of inorganic N within the agronomic depths of soil. Short-term winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. Winter cover cropping has many agronomic benefits and can provide forages base for spring livestock grazing.

Winter cover crop grazing has shown immediate economic benefits through increased animal production. Winter wheat pasture grazing is common in beef cow-calf production and stocker operations In recent years, use of cover crops in no-till organic production systems has steadily increased. When cover crops are terminated at an appropriate growth stage, the unincorporated residue mulch protects the soil from erosion, runoff, soil compaction, and weed pressure, and conserves soil water.

Effects of over- winter green cover on soil solution nitrate concentrations beneath tillage land. There is a growing need to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural systems to increase food production while reducing negative environmental impacts. The efficacy of vegetation cover for reducing nitrate leaching in tillage systems during fallow periods has been widely investigated. Nitrate leaching reductions by natural regeneration i. This study compares the efficacy of natural regeneration and a sown cover crop mustard relative to no vegetative cover under both a reduced tillage system and conventional plough-based system as potential mitigation measures for reducing over- winter soil solution nitrate concentrations.

The study was conducted over three winter fallow seasons on well drained soil, highly susceptible to leaching, under temperate maritime climatic conditions. Mustard cover crop under both reduced tillage and conventional ploughing was observed to be an effective measure for significantly reducing nitrate concentrations. Natural regeneration under reduced tillage was found to significantly reduce the soil solution nitrate concentrations. This was not the case for the natural regeneration under conventional ploughing.

The improved efficacy of natural regeneration under reduced tillage could be a consequence of potential stimulation of seedling germination by the autumn reduced tillage practices and improved over- winter plant growth. There was no significant effect of tillage practices on nitrate concentrations. This study shows that over winter covers of mustard and natural regeneration, under reduced tillage, are effective measures for reducing nitrate concentrations in free draining temperate soils.

Rye cover crop increases earthworm populations and reduces losses of broadcast, fall-applied, fertilizers in surface runoff. Corn Zea mays L. Planting cover crops after harvest can reduce these concerns, but their effectiveness Biomass and nitrogen accumulation of hairy vetch-cereal rye cover crop mixtures as influenced by species proportions. The performance and suitability of a legume-grass cover crop mixture for specific functions may be influenced by the proportions of each species in the mixture.

The objectives of this study were to: 1 evaluate aboveground biomass and species biomass proportions at different hairy vetch Vicia villo Allelopathic influence of a wheat or rye cover crop on growth and yield of no-till cotton. It is suggested that the potentials of allelopathy on cotton plants.

Nevertheless, little is known about the actual effects of alleloche Herbicide and cover crop residue integration in conservation tillage tomato. The increased adoption of conservation tillage in vegetable production requires more information on the role of various cover crops in weed control, tomato quality, and yield. Three conservation-tillage systems utilizing crimson clover, turnip, and cereal rye as winter cover crops were compared to a An integral component of conservation agriculture systems is the use of a high-residue winter cover crop; however, terminating cover crops is an addition expense and planting into high-residue can be a challenge.

An experiment was conducted using black oat Avena strigosa Schreb. Modeling the long-term effect of winter cover crops on nitrate transport in artificially drained fields across the Midwest U. A fall-planted cover crop is a management practice with multiple benefits including reducing nitrate losses from artificially drained fields.

CO2 flux over young and snow- covered Arctic pack ice in winter and spring. Nomura, Daiki; Granskog, Mats A. Rare CO2 flux measurements from Arctic pack ice show that two types of ice contribute to the release of CO2 from the ice to the atmosphere during winter and spring: young, thin ice with a thin layer of snow and older several weeks , thicker ice with thick snow cover. Therefore, brine volume fractions of these two ice types are high enough to provide favorable conditions for gas exchange between sea ice and the atmosphere even in mid- winter.

Although the potential CO2 flux from sea ice decreased due to the presence of the snow, the snow surface is still a CO2 source to the atmosphere for low snow density and thin snow conditions. Cover cropping to reduce nitrate loss through subsurface drainage in the northern U.

Despite the use of best management practices for nitrogen N application rate and timing, significant losses of nitrate nitrogen NO3 - -N in drainage discharge continue to occur from row crop cropping systems. Our objective was to determine whether a autumn-seeded winter rye Secale cereale L. Both phases of the corn-soybean rotation, with and without the winter rye cover crop following corn, were established in in a Normania clay loam fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Aquic Haplustoll soil at Lamberton, MN.

Cover cropping did not affect subsequent soybean yield, but reduced drainage discharge, flow-weighted mean nitrate concentration FWMNC , and NO3 - -N loss relative to winter fallow, although the magnitude of the effect varied considerably with annual precipitation. We estimate that establishment of a winter rye cover crop after corn will be successful in one of four years in southwestern Minnesota. Cover cropping with rye has the potential to be an effective management tool for reducing NO3 - -N loss from subsurface drainage discharge despite challenges to establishment and spring growth in the north-central USA.

Long-term variability in Northern Hemisphere snow cover and associations with warmer winters. A monthly snow accumulation and melt model is used with gridded monthly temperature and precipitation data for the Northern Hemisphere to generate time series of March snow- covered area SCA for the period through The time series of estimated Northern Hemisphere March SCA shows a substantial decrease since about , and this decrease corresponds to an increase in mean winter Northern Hemisphere temperature.

The increase in winter temperature has caused a decrease in the fraction of precipitation that occurs as snow and an increase in snowmelt for some parts of the Northern Hemisphere, particularly the mid-latitudes, thus reducing snow packs and March SCA. In addition, the increase in winter temperature and the decreases in SCA appear to be associated with a contraction of the circumpolar vortex and a poleward movement of storm tracks, resulting in decreased precipitation and snow in the low- to mid-latitudes and an increase in precipitation and snow in high latitudes.

If Northern Hemisphere winter temperatures continue to warm as they have since the s, then March SCA will likely continue to decrease. Tison, J. Sea ice is a dynamic biogeochemical reactor and a double interface actively interacting with both the atmosphere and the ocean. However, proper understanding of its annual impact on exchanges, and therefore potentially on the climate, notably suffer from the paucity of autumnal and winter data sets.

Here we present the results of physical and biogeochemical investigations on winter Antarctic pack ice in the Weddell Sea R. Polarstern AWECS cruise, June-August which are compared with those from two similar studies conducted in the area in and The winter was characterized by a warm sea ice cover due to the combined effects of deep snow and frequent warm cyclones events penetrating southward from the open Southern Ocean.

These conditions were favorable to high ice permeability and cyclic events of brine movements within the sea ice cover brine tubes , favoring relatively high chlorophyll-a Chl-a concentrations. We discuss the timing of this algal activity showing that arguments can be presented in favor of continued activity during the winter due to the specific physical conditions. Large-scale sea ice model simulations also suggest a context of increasingly deep snow, warm ice, and large brine fractions across the three observational years, despite the fact that the model is forced with a snowfall climatology.

This lends support to the claim that more severe Antarctic sea ice conditions, characterized by a longer ice season, thicker, and more concentrated ice are sufficient to increase the snow depth and, somehow counterintuitively, to warm the ice. N use efficiencies and N2O emissions in two contrasting, biochar amended soils under winter wheat— cover crop—sorghum rotation.

Biochar, a carbon-rich, porous pyrolysis product of organic residues, is evaluated as an option to tackle major problems of the global food system. Applied to soil, biochar can sequester carbon and have beneficial effects on nitrogen N cycling, thereby enhancing crop yields and reducing nitrous oxide N2O emissions. There is little understanding of the underlying mechanisms, but many experiments indicated increased yields and manifold changes in N transformation, suggesting an increase in N use efficiency.

We tested the effect of slow pyrolysis wood chip biochar on N use efficiency, crop yields and N2O emissions in a lysimeter system with two soil types sandy loamy Cambisol and silty loamy Luvisol in a winter wheat— cover crop—sorghum rotation. We observed no effects of biochar on N fertiliser use efficiency, yield or N uptake for any crop. Our results indicate that application of the chosen biochar induces environmental benefits in terms of N2O emission and N leaching but does not substantially affect the overall N cycle and hence crop performance in the analyzed temperate crop rotation.

Mechanisms involved in the regulation of photosynthetic efficiency and carbohydrate partitioning in response to low- and high-temperature flooding triggered in winter rye Secale cereale lines with distinct pink snow mold resistances. In terms of climate changes and global warming, winter hardiness could be determined by unfavorable environmental conditions other than frost.

Therefore, we designed an experiment to identify potential common mechanisms of flooding tolerance and snow mold resistance, involving the regulation of photosynthetic efficiency and carbohydrate metabolism at low temperatures. Snow mold-resistant and susceptible winter rye Secale cereale plants were characterized by considerably different patterns of response to flooding.

These differences were clearer at low temperature, thus confirming a possible role of the observed changes in snow mold tolerance. The resistant plants were characterized by lower PSII quantum yields at low temperature, combined with much higher energy flux for energy dissipation from the PSII reaction center. During flooding, the level of soluble carbohydrates increased in the resistant plants and decreased in the susceptible ones.

The resistant lines accumulated larger amounts of total soluble carbohydrates in the crowns than in the leaves. Irrespective of flooding treatment, the resistant lines allocated more sugars for cell wall composition, both in the leaves and crowns. Our results clearly indicated that studies on carbohydrate changes at low temperatures or during anoxia should investigate not only the alterations in water-soluble and storage carbohydrates, but also cell wall carbohydrates. The patterns of changes observed after low and high-temperature flooding were different, indicating separate control mechanisms of these responses.

These included changes in the photosynthetic apparatus, starch. In a double cropping rice field experiment, effects of five winter cover crops on the total organic carbon TOC , active organic carbon AOC , carbon pool management index CPMI and organic carbon storage were studied in three soil layers , and cm. Winter cover crops of ryegrass Ry , Chinese milk vetch Mv , potato Po , and rape Ra between two rice crops were compared with fallow as control CK. The results indicated that the recycling of winter cover crops straw promoted the storage of SOC in the cm soil profile as compared with CK.

The strongest effect of the winter cover crops on the SOC storage occurred in Mv treatment, followed by Mv and Po treatments, and the SOC storage increased with the increasing soil depth. Changes over time in the allelochemical content of ten cultivars of rye Secale cereale L. Published studies focused on characterizing the allelopathy-based weed suppression by rye cover crop mulch have provided varying and inconsistent estimates of weed suppression. Studies were initiated to examine several factors that could influence the weed suppressiveness of rye : kill date, cultivar, and soil fertility.

Ten cultivars of rye were planted with four rates of nitrogen fertilization, and tissue from each of these treatment combinations was harvested three times during the growing season. Concentrations of a known rye allelochemical DIBOA 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4- 2H benzoxazineone were quantified from the harvested rye tissue using high performance liquid chromatography HPLC. Phytotoxicity observed from aqueous extracts of the harvested rye tissue correlated with the levels of DIBOA recovered in harvested tissue.

The amount of DIBOA in rye tissue varied depending on harvest date and rye cultivar, but was generally lower with all cultivars when rye was harvested later in the season. However, the late maturing variety 'Wheeler' retained greater concentrations of DIBOA in comparison to other rye cultivars when harvested later in the season. The decline in DIBOA concentrations as rye matures, and the fact that many rye cultivars mature at different rates may help explain why estimates of weed suppression from allelopathic agents in rye have varied so widely in the literature. Relationships between nocturnal winter road slipperiness, cloud cover and surface temperature.

Ice and Snow are important risks for road traffic. In this study we show several events of slipperiness in Switzerland, mainly caused by rain or snow falling on a frozen surface. Other reasons for slippery conditions are frost or freezing dew in clear nights and nocturnal clearing after precipitation, which goes along with radiative cooling. The main parameters of road weather forecasts are precipitation, cloudiness and surface temperature.

Precipitation is well predictable with weather radars and radar nowcasting algorithms. Temperatures are often taken from numerical weather prediction models, but because of changes in cloud cover these model values are inaccurate in terms of predicting the onset of freezing. Cloudiness, especially the advection, formation and dissipation of clouds and their interaction with surface temperatures, is one of the major unsolved problems of road weather forecasts. Cloud cover and the temperature difference between air and surface temperature are important parameters of the radiation balance.

In this contribution, we show the relationship between them, proved at several stations all over Switzerland. The acquired relationship may vary from one station to another, but we conclude that temperature difference is a signature for nocturnal cloudiness. We investigated nocturnal cloudiness for two cases from winters and in the canton of Lucerne in central Switzerland. With the aid of our equations, temperature differences detected from this network were converted into cloud maps. A comparison between precipitation seen by radar, cloud maps and surface temperatures shows that there are similar.

Organic weed conrol and cover crop residue integration impacts on weed control, quality, and yield and economics in conservation tillage tomato - A case study. The increased use of conservation tillage in vegetable production requires more information be developed on the role of cover crops in weed control, tomato quality and yield. Three conservation-tillage systems utilizing crimson clover, brassica and cereal rye as winter cover crops were compared to Assessing the impacts of future climate conditions on the effectiveness of winter cover crops in reducing nitrate loads into the Chesapeake Bay Watershed using SWAT model.

However, future climate conditions FCCs are expected to exacerbate water quality degradation in the CBW by increasing nitrate loads from agriculture. We also developed six representative WCC implementation scenarios based on the most commonly used planting dates and species of WCCs in this region. As CO2 concentration was higher and winters were warmer under FCC scenarios, WCCs had greater biomass and therefore showed higher nitrate reduction efficiency.

Cover crop root, shoot, and rhizodeposit contributions to soil carbon in a no- till corn bioenergy cropping system. Crop residues are potential biofuel feedstocks, but residue removal may result in reduced soil carbon C. The inclusion of a cover crop in a corn bioenergy system could provide additional biomass and as well as help to mitigate the negative effects of residue removal by adding belowground C to stable soil C pools. In a no-till continuous corn bioenergy system in the northern portion of the US corn belt, we used 13CO2 pulse labeling to trace C in a winter rye secale cereale cover crop into different soil C pools for two years following rye termination.

Corn stover contributed 66 another was in harvested corn stover , corn roots 57, rye shoot 61, rye roots 59, and rye rhizodeposits 27 g C m-2 to soil C. Five months following cover crop termination, belowground cover crop inputs were three times more likely to remain in soil C pools and much of the root-derived C was in mineral- associated soil fractions. Our results underscore the importance of cover crop roots vs. Belowground C inputs from winter cover crops could substantially offset short term stover removal in this system.

Snow cover and extreme winter warming events control flower abundance of some, but not all species in high arctic Svalbard. Abstract The High Arctic winter is expected to be altered through ongoing and future climate change. Winter precipitation and snow depth are projected to increase and melt out dates change accordingly. Also, snow cover and depth will play an important role in protecting plant canopy from increasingly more frequent extreme winter warming events.

Flower production of many Arctic plants is dependent on melt out timing, since season length determines resource availability for flower preformation. Most species were resistant to snow cover increase, but two species reduced flower abundance due to shortened growing seasons. The oatmeal flakes were also served without further preparation. The absorption of zinc was negatively correlated to the phytic acid content of the meal with the highest absorption, It is concluded that food preparation that decreases the phytic acid content improves zinc absorption. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products.

A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease.

However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by 1 addition of dietary fibers to sausages, 2 type of dietary fibers and 3 the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages.

The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales VAS assessed every 30 min for min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety P rye bran sausages increased satiety P rye bran bread. No differences in subsequent energy intake were observed. In conclusion, wheat and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer.

The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread , stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing. Fungal Spoilage in Food Processing. Food processing, packaging, and formulation strategies are often specifically designed to inhibit or control microbial growth to prevent spoilage. Some of the most restrictive strategies rely solely or on combinations of pH reduction, preservatives, water activity limitation, control of oxygen tension, thermal processing, and hermetic packaging.

In concert, these strategies are used to inactivate potential spoilage microorganisms or inhibit their growth. However, for select microbes that can overcome these controls, the lack of competition from additional background microbiota helps facilitate their propagation.

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Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage , and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

Consumers' health-related perceptions of bread - Implications for labeling and health communication. There is a wide variety of commercial bread types and the present study identifies potential pitfalls in consumer evaluations of bread from a health perspective. The aim is to describe consumers' health-related perceptions of bread by exploring which health-related quality attributes consumers associate with bread and whether there are differences with regard to age, gender and education level.

Responses were content analyzed and inductively categorized. Difficulties identifying healthy bread were perceived as a barrier for consumption especially among consumers with a lower education level. Several of the health effects important to consumers cannot be communicated on food packages and consumers must therefore use their own cues to identify these properties. This may lead to consumers being misled especially if a bread is labeled e.

The effect of fermentation and addition of vegetable oil on resistant starch formation in wholegrain breads. Resistant starch has potential health benefits but the factors affecting its formation in bread and baked products are not well studied. Here, the formation of resistant starch in wholemeal bread products was evaluated in relation to the processing conditions including fermentation time, temperature and the inclusion of palm oil as a vitamin source.

The effects of each the factor were assessed using a full factorial design. Palm oil content was found to have a significant effect on the formation of resistant starch in all of the breads while fermentation time and temperature had no significant impact.

Sourdough fermentation of rye bread was found to have a greater impact on resistant starch formation than bulk fermentation of wheat and wheat blend breads , most likely due the increased organic acid content of the sourdough process. The presented work covers the problem of developing a method of extruded bread classification with the application of artificial neural networks. Extruded flat graham, corn, and rye breads differening in water activity were used. The breads were subjected to the compression test with simultaneous registration of acoustic signal. The amplitude-time records were analyzed both in time and frequency domains.

Acoustic emission signal parameters: single energy, counts, amplitude, and duration acoustic emission were determined for the breads in four water activities: initial 0. For classification and the clustering process, radial basis function, and self-organizing maps Kohonen network were used. Artificial neural networks were examined with respect to their ability to classify or to cluster samples according to the bread type, water activity value, and both of them. Food choice motives and bread liking of consumers embracing hedonistic and traditional values. This study addresses the effect of personal values on consumers' food choice motives and on the liking of bread.

A total of consumers participated in the study in three groups: traditional and hedonistic consumers, who presented opposite value types according to the Schwartz value theory, and a control group. Three different rye breads were evaluated for liking and their sensory profiles were determined. The consumer groups' values, food choice motives measured with the Food Choice Questionnaire and a Concern scale, and liking of the breads differed significantly according to the analysis of variance and a partial least squares regression analysis.

For hedonistic consumers, rye bread characterized by a soft and porous texture influenced liking positively, and food choice motives "mood" and "price" correlated positively with their values. Traditional consumers were more positive toward different types of rye bread , and food choice motives "natural content", "familiarity" and "health concern" were more important to them than to hedonists.

Overall, this study demonstrated that values are connected to food choice motives and, to some extent liking and, thus, values can be utilized both in product development and in advertising. Effect of acid whey-fortified breads on caecal fermentation processes and blood lipid profile in rats. The acid whey concentrate after ultrafiltration used in rat diets caused reduced weight gain for atherogenic diet with wheat bread ; growth of caecum tissue and digesta weight; a decrease in the pH of caecum digesta for atherogenic diet ; reduced activity of bacterial glycolytic enzymes; and a significant increase in total SCFA for both types of diet with wheat- rye breads containing acid whey concentrate.

For wheat bread with acid whey, in standard diet, a statistically significant increase was found in the population of bifidobacteria. The results showed that the acid whey concentrates could be used as a valuable food ingredient. Impact of food processing on rye product properties and their in vitro digestion. Rye products have been reported to elicit postprandial insulin and glucose responses which may be beneficial for prevention of type-2 diabetes.

However, mechanisms underlying variations in responses related to processing techniques are not fully understood. Five differently processed rye products sourdough-fermented bread , fermented and unfermented crispbread, extrusion-cooked rye , and porridge and refined wheat bread were characterised.

Two in vitro methods, a dynamic method simulating digestion in the stomach and small intestine and a static method, simulating conditions in the stomach were used to determine viscosity development, structural changes and release of glucose during digestion.


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Structural and compositional differences induced by processing influenced product digestion. More cohesive boluses were associated with slower glucose release. Sourdough fermentation increased amylose leakage and appeared to inhibit starch hydrolysis despite low digesta viscosity and rapid disintegration. The net release of glucose during digestion of foods is determined by several factors which may vary in their importance depending on product specific properties.

Steers grazing of a rye cover crop influences growth of rye and no-till cotton. Small grain cover crops offer opportunities for grazing but effects on following row crops are not well understood. From through , stocker steers sequence grazed small grains in a 2-paddock rye -cotton-wheat-fallow- rye rotation. Treatments imposed on rye included 1 zero-grazing from ; Microbiological Spoilage of Dairy Products. The wide array of available dairy foods challenges the microbiologist, engineer, and technologist to find the best ways to prevent the entry of microorganisms, destroy those that do get in along with their enzymes, and prevent the growth and activities of those that escape processing treatments.

Troublesome spoilage microorganisms include aerobic psychrotrophic Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, molds, heterofermentative lactobacilli, and spore-forming bacteria. Psychrotrophic bacteria can produce large amounts of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, and the extent of recontamination of pasteurized fluid milk products with these bacteria is a major determinant of their shelf life. Fungal spoilage of dairy foods is manifested by the presence of a wide variety of metabolic by-products, causing off-odors and flavors, in addition to visible changes in color or texture.

Protease inhibitors in various flours and breads : Effect of fermentation, baking and in vitro digestion on trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activities. In this study trypsin TIA and chymotrypsin inhibitory CIA activities were determined in the extracts of wheat, rye mix, mixed cereals and, whole wheat flours and, breads made with these flours. Whole wheat flour, dough, and bread did not show any TIA. Other flours displayed TIA. Contrary to, all flours, doughs, and breads exhibited CIA.

Although TIA was not detected in the protein extracts obtained from wheat and rye mix breads , protein extract of rye mix flour exhibited TIA. Following in vitro digestion process, TIA of wheat bread was found as 5. CIA was determined in dialysates obtained from wheat 2. This chapter surveys common microbial food spoilage processes. The chapter is organized by food products and includes sections addressing spoilage in meat, poultry, fish; dairy products milk, butter, cheese ; beverage products; bakery products; canned foods; fruit and confectionery products; and emulsions.

It addresses the isolation and identification of spoilage organisms and provides several case studies as examples. It introduces various organisms responsible for spoilage including Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria, Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, yeasts, molds, and fungal contaminants. Throughout the chapter, attention is given to when, where, and how spoilage organisms enter the food processing chain.

Troubleshooting techniques are suggested. The effect or lack of effect of heating, dehydration, pH change, cooling, and sealing on various organisms is explained throughout. The chapter contains four tables that connect specific organisms to various spoilage manifestations in a variety of food products. An improved course of glycaemia after a bread based breakfast is associated with beneficial effects on acute and semi-acute markers of appetite. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing all over the world and a diet promoting reduced glycaemic excursions in the postprandial phase may help to prevent the disease.

In the present study guar gum GG and whole grain rye flour or high amylose maize starch HAM was combined to design bread products giving low and sustained glycaemia. A meal study was performed with young, healthy subjects and in addition to glucose and insulin, also subjective appetite ratings and biomarkers of appetite, voluntary energy intake at a second meal and markers of fermentation were studied.

The combination of GG and rye was superior with improvements in subjective appetite whereas both test products lead to improvements in biomarkers of appetite compared to the white wheat bread reference. Doughs supplemented with endoxylanase XYL and varying amounts of microbial transglutaminase TG were analyzed by sequential protein extraction, quantitation of protein fractions and protein types, and determination of water-extractable arabinoxylans.

With increasing TG activity, the concentration of prolamins and glutelins decreased and increased, respectively, and the prolamin-to-glutelin ratio strongly declined. The overall amount of extractable protein decreased with increasing TG level showing that cross-linking by TG provided high-molecular-weight protein aggregates. The decrease of the high-molecular-weight arabinoxylan fraction and the concurrent increase of the medium-molecular-weight fraction confirmed the degradation of arabinoxylans by XYL.

Volume and crumb hardness measurements of bread showed increased protein connectivity induced by XYL and TG. Significant positive effects on the final bread quality were especially obtained by XYL addition. Rope-producing strains of Bacillus spp. Two types of white wheat bread high- and low-type loaves were investigated for rope spoilage. Thirty of the 56 breads tested developed rope spoilage within 5 days; the high-type loaves were affected by rope spoilage more than the low-type loaves.

Sixty-one Bacillus strains were isolated from ropy breads and were characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and genotypic traits. All of the isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis by biochemical tests, but molecular assays randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR assay, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, and sequencing of the V3 region of 16S ribosomal DNA revealed greater Bacillus species variety in ropy breads.

In fact, besides strains of B. All of the ropy Bacillus isolates exhibited amylase activity, whereas only Strains of lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from sourdough were first selected for antirope activity on bread slices and then used as starters for bread -making experiments. Prevention of growth of approximately 10 4 rope-producing B. Growth of B. Lippolis, Vincenzo; Porricelli, Anna C. The precision profile of the method, cut-off level and rate of false suspect results confirm the satisfactory analytical performances of assay as a screening method.

These findings show that the optimized FPIA is suitable for high-throughput screening, and permits reliable quantitative determination of OTA in rye and rye crispbread at levels that fall below the EU regulatory limits. Production of wheat bread without preservatives using sourdough starters. In order for the beneficial effects of sourdough application in breadmaking to take place a proper selection of lactic acid bacteria species and strains, an appropriate technology and effective control of the purity and activity of the selected cultures.

Four symbiotic starters for sourdough for the production of bread were developed and probated in a production laboratory using the selected strains Lactobacillus brevis LBRZ7, L. The starter sourdoughs that include Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. The application of the developed starters for the production of wheat bread guarantees longer shelf life and no adverse alterations in the features of the final bread.

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Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products. Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage.

Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram-positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria salted fish or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts barrel salted fish.


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  • Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish is well understood, much less is known about spoilage of lightly preserved fish products. However, more work is needed in this area. Effect of ethanol on growth of Chrysonilia sitophila 'the red bread mould' and Hyphopichia burtonii 'the chalky mould' in sliced bread.

    Contamination of food industrial environments and recontamination of finished products by Chrysonilia sitophila and Hyphopichia burtonii have long represented serious problems for the bakery industries. As one of the most common ways to slow down or avoid fungal spoilage on bakery products is the use of ethanol, in the present work the effect of this substance has been assessed on growth of two of the most frequently occurring associated moulds, C. Test on synthetic media: H. Test on sliced bread : ethanol proved to be effective to prevent spoilage by C.

    The results obtained represent a fundamental point of reference for the bakery industries, as they can apply them in the productive practice to avoid spoilage by C. Previous studies include an earlier gravity survey, 3-D seismic reflection, vertical seismic profiling VSP on a single well, 3-D seismic imaging, and a report of the integrated seismic studies. Recently, Presco Energy conducted an aeromagnetic survey and is currently in the process of applying 2-D VSP methods to target exploration and production wells at the site.

    We hypothesized that addition of a high-resolution gravity survey would better define the locations, trends, lengths, and dip angles of faults and possible solution cavity features. The gravity survey encompassed an area of approximately 78 km2 30 mi2 within the boundary of the KGRA along with portions of 8 sections directly to the west and 8 sections directly to the east.

    The survey included stations that were spaced at m intervals. The simple Bouguer anomaly patterns were coincident with elevation, and those patterns remained after terrain corrections were performed. To remove this signal, the data were further processed using wave-length bandpass filtering techniques. The results of the filtering and comparison with the recent aeromagnetic survey indicate that the location and trend of major fault systems can be identified using this technique.

    Dip angles can be inferred by the anomaly contour gradients. By further reductions in the bandpass window, other features such as possible karst solution channels may also be recognizable. Drilling or other geophysical methods such as a. Second meal effect on appetite and fermentation of wholegrain rye foods. Wholegrain rye has been associated with decreased hunger sensations. This may be partly mediated by colonic fermentation. Sustained consumption of fermentable components is known to change the gut microflora and may increase numbers of saccharolytic bacteria.

    To investigate the effect of wholegrain rye consumption on appetite and colonic fermentation after a subsequent meal. In a randomized, controlled, three-arm cross-over study, twelve healthy male subjects consumed three iso-caloric evening test meals. The test meals did not differ in their effect on parameters of subjective appetite sensation the following day. The physics of bread. Nathan Myhrvold - the polymath physicist whose passions range from cosmology to cooking - is this month publishing a massive, five-volume book about the science of bread and bread -making.

    Robert P Crease catches up with this intellectual livewire at his Cooking Lab headquarters in Seattle. Microbiological Spoilage of Canned Foods. Nicolas Appert developed the first commercial process that kept foods from spoiling in response to an offer from the French government for a method of preserving food for use by the army and navy.

    Appert, a confectioner and chef, began to experiment in his workshop in Massy, near Paris, but since little was known about bacteriology and the causes of spoilage Louis Pasteur had yet to formulate the germ theory , much of his work involved trial and error. In , after years of experimenting, he was awarded the prize of 12, francs for his method of preservation, which involved cooking foods in sealed jars at high temperatures.

    Chitosan-containing bread made using marine shellfishery byproducts: functional, bioactive, and quality assessment of the end product. Chitosan is nature's second most abundant polymer after cellulose and forms the structural support in crustacean shell material and Basidomycete mushroom stalks. Chitosan is a known antimicrobial agent but, to date, was not examined as an antimicrobial agent in bread formulations for the prevention of mold or rope formation. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of chitosan generated from prawn shell byproducts on the color, moisture, and texture and crumb formation of bread.

    Low-phytate wholegrain bread instead of high-phytate wholegrain bread in a total diet context did not improve iron status of healthy Swedish females: a week, randomized, parallel-design intervention study. To investigate the effects of eating wholegrain rye bread with high or low amounts of phytate on iron status in women under free-living conditions.

    In this week, randomized, parallel-design intervention study, females were allocated into two groups, a high-phytate- bread group or a low-phytate- bread group. The bread was administered in addition to their habitual daily diet. Iron status biomarkers and plasma alkylresorcinols were analyzed at baseline and post-intervention.

    Fifty-five females completed the study. Although single-meal studies clearly show an increase in iron bioavailability from dephytinization of cereals, medium-term consumption of reduced phytate bread under free-living conditions suggests that this strategy does not work to improve iron status in healthy women of reproductive age. Sourdough in gluten-free bread -making: an ancient technology to solve a novel issue? The increasing demand for high quality gluten-free GF bread , clean labels and natural products is raising the need for new approaches in GF bread -making.

    Sourdough is the foremost fermentation used for baking purposes and it has been proven to be ideal for improving the texture, palatability, aroma, shelf life and nutritional value of wheat and rye breads. These characteristic features derive from the complex metabolic activities of the sourdough-resident lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, e.

    These effects have been extensively studied and well described for traditional baking, whereas little is known about the role of sourdough in GF baking. Thus, the use of sourdough in GF baking may be the new frontier for improving the quality, safety and acceptability of GF bread. Histograms and Raisin Bread. Describes various elementary school activities using a loaf of raisin bread to promote inquiry skills. Activities include estimating the number of raisins in the loaf by constructing histograms of the number of raisins in a slice.

    Food spoilage has an enormous economic impact, and microbial food spoilage plays a significant role in food waste and loss; subsequently, an equally significant portion of undergraduate food microbiology instruction should be dedicated to spoilage microbiology. Here, we describe a set of undergraduate microbiology laboratory exercises that focus…. Spoilage bacteria of fresh broiler chicken carcasses. Studies were conducted to identify the bacteria responsible for spoilage of fresh broiler chicken carcasses and to characterize the off-odors these bacteria produce.

    Broiler carcasses were collected from processing plants in the northeast Georgia area, the southeastern U. The carcasses were allowed to spoil under controlled conditions at 3 C and spoilage bacteria were isolated. Each spoilage bacterium was separately inoculated into a sterile chicken skin medium, incubated at 25 C for 48 h, and subjectively evaluated for odor. The bacteria isolated from spoiled carcasses that consistently produced off-odors in the chicken skin medium, regardless of the geographical location from which the chickens were obtained, were Shewanella putrefaciens A, B, and D, Pseudomonas fluorescens A, B, and D, and Pseudomonas fragi.

    These bacteria produced off-odors that resembled "sulfur", "dishrag", "ammonia", "wet dog", "skunk", "dirty socks", "rancid fish", "unspecified bad odor", or a sweet smell resembling "canned corn". Odors produced by the spoilage bacteria were varied; however, odors most associated with spoiled poultry, such as "dishraggy" odors, were produced by the bacteria that were most consistently isolated, such as S.

    Bacteriology of Spoilage of Fish Muscle1. A total of bacterial isolates from fresh and spoiling fillets of English sole Parophrys vetulus stored at 5 C were classified as to genus and tested for various biochemical activities, including the ability to spoil sterile muscle press juice at 5 C. Production of off-odor, volatile reducing substances, and trimethylamine was used to estimate spoilage.

    It was concluded that a method is now available to determine directly and unequivocally the role played in spoilage by various bacterial groups and that it is no longer necessary to rely on indirect evidence. Kefir immobilized on corn grains as biocatalyst for lactic acid fermentation and sourdough bread making. The natural mixed culture kefir was immobilized on boiled corn grains to produce an efficient biocatalyst for lactic acid fermentation with direct applications in food production, such as sourdough bread making. The immobilized biocatalyst was initially evaluated for its efficiency for lactic acid production by fermentation of cheese whey at various temperatures.

    The immobilized cells increased the fermentation rate and enhanced lactic acid production compared to free kefir cells. Maximum lactic acid yield The immobilized biocatalyst was then assessed as culture for sourdough bread making. The produced sourdough breads had satisfactory specific loaf volumes and good sensory characteristics. The sourdough breads made with the immobilized biocatalyst had aroma profiles similar to that of the control samples as shown by headspace SPME GC-MS analysis.

    Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread. Celiac disease CD is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye , barley, and other closely related cereal grains. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products GF. The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free GF bread , clean labels and natural products is rising.

    Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread , its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting.

    This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread. Xanthine oxidase biosensor for monitoring meat spoilage. In this study, we have designed an electrochemical biosensor for real-time detection of specific biomarkers of bacterial metabolism related to meat spoilage hypoxanthine and xanthine. The materials deposited on the sensor tip include amorphous platinum nanoclusters i. Pt black , reduced graphene oxide, nanoceria, and xanthine oxidase.

    Xanthine oxidase was encapsulated in laponite hydrogel and used for the biorecognition of hypoxanthine and xanthine two molecules involved in the rotting of meat by spoilage microorganisms. The developed biosensor demonstrated good electrochemical performance toward xanthine with sensitivity of 2. Consumer perception of bread quality. Bread contains a wide range of important nutritional components which provide a positive effect on human health. However, the consumption of bread is declining during the last decades.

    This is due to factors such as changing eating patterns and an increasing choice of substitutes like breakfast cereals and fast foods. The aim of this study is to investigate consumer's quality perception of bread towards sensory, health and nutrition attributes. Four consumer segments are identified based on these attributes. The different consumer segments comprise consumers being positive to all three quality aspects of bread "enthusiastic" as wells as consumers perceiving bread strongly as "tasteless", "non-nutritious" or "unhealthy".

    Moreover, factors are identified which influence the consumers' quality perception of bread. The results of our study may help health professionals and policy makers to systematically inform consumers about the positive effects of bread based on its components. Furthermore, firms can use the results to build up tailor-made marketing strategies. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products. The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery non-chocolate , liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey.

    A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity a w , which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0. Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry.

    Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination. Bread Baking Contest. Describes a classroom project in which elementary students bake homemade bread to learn about the settlement period in Canadian history and the early history of the students' community. Maintains that students learn to compare the lifestyle of the past with the present. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance. For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Megasphaera cerevisiae.

    They can spoil beer by turbidity, acidity and the production of unfavorable smell such as diacetyl or hydrogen sulfide. For the microbiological control, many advanced biotechnological techniques such as immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction PCR have been applied in place of the conventional and time-consuming method of incubation on culture media. Subsequently, a method is needed to determine whether the detected bacterium is capable of growing in beer or not.

    In lactic acid bacteria, hop resistance is crucial for their ability to grow in beer. Hop compounds, mainly iso-alpha-acids in beer, have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. They act as ionophores which dissipate the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane and reduce the proton motive force pmf. Consequently, the pmf-dependent nutrient uptake is hampered, resulting in cell death.

    The hop-resistance mechanisms in lactic acid bacteria have been investigated. HorA was found to excrete hop compounds in an ATP-dependent manner from the cell membrane to outer medium. Furthermore, a pmf-dependent hop transporter was recently presented. Understanding the hop-resistance mechanisms has enabled the development of rapid methods to discriminate beer spoilage strains from nonspoilers. The horA-PCR method has been applied for bacterial control in breweries. Also, a discrimination method was developed based on ATP pool measurement in lactobacillus cells.

    Background The purpose of the study is to elucidate the sequence composition of the short arm of rye chromosome 1 Secale cereale with special focus on its gene content, because this portion of the rye genome is an integrated part of several hundreds of bread wheat varieties worldwide. This quantity of sequence information resulted in 0. More than four thousand simple sequence repeat SSR sites mostly located in gene related sequence reads were identified for possible marker development.

    The existence of chloroplast insertions in 1RS has been verified by identifying chimeric chloroplast-genomic sequence reads. Synteny analysis of 1RS to the full genomes of Oryza sativa and Brachypodium distachyon revealed that about half of the genes of 1RS correspond to the distal end of the short arm of rice chromosome 5 and the proximal region of the long arm of Brachypodium distachyon chromosome 2. Comparison of the gene content of 1RS to 1HS barley chromosome arm revealed high conservation of genes related to chromosome 5 of rice.

    Conclusions The present study revealed the gene content and potential gene functions on this chromosome arm and demonstrated numerous sequence elements like SSRs and gene-related sequences, which can be utilised for future research as well as in breeding of wheat and rye. Phytase activity of lactic acid bacteria and their impact on the solubility of minerals from wholemeal wheat bread. The objective of this study was to determinate phytase activity of bacteriocins producing lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from spontaneous rye sourdough.

    In vitro studies in simulated gastrointestinal tract media pH provide that bioproducts prepared with P. Therefore, P. Two wild tetraploid taxa, Ae. Additionally, we incorporated wild Einkorn wheat Triticum boeoticum and its domesticated form T. Chloroplast genomes were used for overall sequence comparison, phylogenetic analysis and dating of divergence times. We estimate that barley diverged from rye and wheat approximately 8—9 million years ago MYA.

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    The genome donors of hexaploid wheat diverged between 2. Interestingly, the A genome taxa T. As these two have a reproductive barrier, the divergence time estimate also provides an upper limit for the time required for the formation of a species boundary between the two. Furthermore, we conclusively show that the chloroplast genome of hexaploid wheat was contributed by the B genome donor and that this unknown species diverged from Ae. We propose the presented phylogeny and divergence time estimates as a reference framework for future studies on Triticeae.

    Winter rye cover crop effect on corn seedling pathogens. Cover crops have been grown successfully in Iowa, but sometimes a cereal rye cover crop preceding corn can reduce corn yields. Our research examines the effect of a rye cover crop on infections of the succeeding corn crop by soil fungal pathogens. Plant measurements included: growth stage, height, r Grain that, before the Creek and Rye Fires, Southern California. While the Thomas fire in Ventura County, CA is the largest and most destructive, several other smaller fires burned in the Los Angeles area. The Creek fire destroyed buildings and consumed over 15, acres.

    The smaller Rye fire burned 6, acres and destroyed 9 structures. The image was acquired December 17, , covers an area of 9. Tracing transgenic maize as affected by breadmaking process and raw material for the production of a traditional maize bread , broa. Broa is a maize bread highly consumed and appreciated, especially in the north and central zones of Portugal. In the manufacturing of broa, maize flour and maize semolina might be used, besides other cereals such as wheat and rye. Considering the needs for genetically modified organism GMO traceability in highly processed foods, the aim of this work was to assess DNA degradation, DNA amplification and GMO quantification along breadmaking process of broa.

    DNA degradation was noticed by its decrease of integrity after dough baking and in all parts of bread sampling. The PCR amplification results of extracted DNA from the three distinct maize breads broa 1, 2 and 3 showed that sequences for maize invertase gene and for events MON and TC were easily detected with strong products. Real-time PCR revealed that quantification of GMO was feasible in the three different breads and that sampling location of baked bread might have a limited influence since the average quantitative results of both events after baking were very close to the actual values in the case of broa 1 prepared with maize semolina.

    In the other two maize breads subjected to the same baking treatment, the contents of MON maize were considerably underestimated, leading to the conclusion that heat-processing was not the responsible parameter for that distortion, but the size of particle and mechanical processing of raw maize play also a major role in GMO quantification.

    Growth dynamics of specific spoilage organisms and associated spoilage biomarkers in chicken breast stored aerobically. The chicken breast samples were aerobically s Preventing spoilage of poultry meat: focus on spoilage microorganisms and their control. The shelf-life of fresh poultry meat is determined by the level of contamination of processed meat by spoilage microorganisms, storage temperature and storage atmosphere.

    This chapter looks at the various ways by which to extend the shelf-life of poultry meat: vacuum and modified atmosphere packagin Breaking the Bread of Life. Describes Bishop Hannan High School's Pennsylvania retreat program, in which students learn to develop a spiritual element in their lives. Discusses the theme, "The Bread of Life," and how the process of baking bread for communion helped unite and nourish students.

    Reports that, through a variety of fellowship activities, students gained a sense…. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour. Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage , insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.

    No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties. Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is also important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement.

    Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies. In France bread plays a very special and ambivalent role among our foodstuffs because of the considerable drop in its consumption, its alleged harmful effects on our health and the respect in which it is traditionally held. More than half the 1 adults interviewed in this study say they have decreased their consumption of bread in the last 10 years. The reasons given vary according to age, body weight and urbanization level.

    The main reasons given for this restriction are the desire to prevent or reduce obesity, the decrease in physical activity, the general reduction in food consumption and the possibility of diversifying foods even further. Moreover, the decreasing appeal of bread in relation to other foods, as well as a modification in the structure of meals, in which bread becomes less useful to accompany other food, accentuate this loss of attraction.

    However, the respect for bread as part of the staple diet remains very acute as 95 p. Mechanization and urbanization having brought about a decrease in energy needs, the most common alimentary adaptation is general caloric restriction by which glucids, and especially bread , are curtailed. Metabolomics reveals differences in postprandial responses to breads and fasting metabolic characteristics associated with postprandial insulin demand in postmenopausal women.

    Changes in serum metabolic profile after the intake of different food products e. In addition, associations between the metabolic profile in fasting serum and the postprandial concentration of insulin in response to different breads were investigated. Nineteen postmenopausal women with normal fasting glucose and normal glucose tolerance participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover meal study. The postprandial metabolic profile was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance and targeted LC-mass spectrometry and was compared between different breads using ANOVA and multivariate models.

    High blood concentration of branched-chain amino acids, i. Effects of innovative and conventional sanitizing treatments on the reduction of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera defects on industrial durum wheat bread. Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Hyphopichia burtonii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera are spoilage yeasts causing chalk mold defects on sliced bread packaged under modified atmosphere. The first objective of this study, carried out in a bread -making company for two consecutive years, was to genetically identify yeasts isolated from spoiled sliced bread in Modified Atmosphere Packaging MAP and to determine the dominant species among identified strains.

    One-hundred percent of the isolated yeasts were identified as S. Concerning mean water activity aw and moisture content values, packaged bread samples were, respectively, included in the range 0. Spices, nuts, cocoa, and coffee are raw materials that may be used alone or as ingredients in the manufacture of processed food products. The control of microbiological spoilage of these raw materials at the ingredient stage will enable the food processor to better assure the production of high-quality foods with an acceptable shelf life.

    While this chapter is limited to four materials, many of the spoilage control procedures recommended can also be applied to other raw materials of a similar nature. Effect of lavender Lavandula angustifolia and melissa Melissa Officinalis waste on quality and shelf life of bread. The effect of lavender Lavandula angustifolia and melissa Melissa Officinalis waste on preparation, characteristics and shelf life of bread was investigated. It was found that lavender and melissa waste, generated yearly in large amounts, were rich on polyphenols especially rosmarinic acid and aroma compounds, and exhibited high antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.

    The bread with 2. The breads with 2. The sensory evaluation demonstrated that the consumers preferred mainly bread with 2. Not by bread alone. It turns out that Vygotsky was very much involved in issues of Jewish culture and politics. Rather surprisingly, the young Vygotsky rejected all contemporary ideas to save the Jewish people from discrimination and persecution by creating an autonomous state in Palestine or elsewhere. Instead, until well into , Vygotsky proposed the rather traditional option of strengthening the spiritual roots of the Jews by returning to the religious writings.

    It was only after the October Revolution that Vygotsky switched from arguments in favour of the religious faith in the Kingship of God to the communist belief in a Radiant Future. Changes over time in the allelochemical content of ten cultivars of rye Secale cereale L. Published studies focused on characterizing the allelopathy-based weed suppression by rye cover crop mulch have provided varying and inconsistent estimates of weed suppression.

    Studies were initiated to examine several factors that could influence the weed suppressiveness of rye : kill date, cultivar, and soil fertility. Ten cultivars of rye were planted with four rates of nitrogen fertilization, and tissue from each of these treatment combinations was harvested three times during the growing season. Concentrations of a known rye allelochemical DIBOA 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4- 2H benzoxazineone were quantified from the harvested rye tissue using high performance liquid chromatography HPLC.

    Phytotoxicity observed from aqueous extracts of the harvested rye tissue correlated with the levels of DIBOA recovered in harvested tissue. The amount of DIBOA in rye tissue varied depending on harvest date and rye cultivar, but was generally lower with all cultivars when rye was harvested later in the season. However, the late maturing variety 'Wheeler' retained greater concentrations of DIBOA in comparison to other rye cultivars when harvested later in the season.

    The decline in DIBOA concentrations as rye matures, and the fact that many rye cultivars mature at different rates may help explain why estimates of weed suppression from allelopathic agents in rye have varied so widely in the literature. Effects of whole grain rye , with and without resistant starch type 2 supplementation, on glucose tolerance, gut hormones, inflammation and appetite regulation in an The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and prevention is needed.

    Whole grain has shown potential to lower the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. One possible mechanism behind the benefits of whole grain is the gut fermentation of dietary fiber DF , e. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of whole grain rye -based products on glucose- and appetite regulation. Twenty-one healthy subjects were provided four rye -based evening test meals in a crossover overnight study design. White wheat flour bread WWB was used as reference evening meal.

    Ad libitum energy intake was determined at lunch, Whole grain rye bread has the potential to improve cardiometabolic. Phytotoxicity and benzoxazinone concentration in field grown cereal rye Secale cereale L. Rye Secale cereale L. The developmental stages and physiological conditions under which rye plants synthesizes maximal levels of allelochemicals are not well defined. Knowledge of the conditions under whi Characterization of Norwegian women eating wholegrain bread.

    To investigate dietary and non-dietary characteristics of wholegrain bread eaters in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study. Cross-sectional study using an FFQ. Women were divided into two groups according to wholegrain bread consumption. Adult women n 69 Living outside Oslo or in East Norway and having a high level of physical activity were associated with high wholegrain bread consumption.

    BMI and smoking were inversely associated with wholegrain bread consumption. Intake of many food items was positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption P trend bread consumption P trend bread consumption, even after taking energy intake into account. Energy intake was strongly positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption.

    Geographical differences in wholegrain bread consumption were observed. Our study suggests that women with high wholegrain bread consumption do not generally have a healthier diet than those who eat less wholegrain bread , but that they tend to be healthier in regard to other lifestyle factors. Synergistic effect of Aspergillus tubingensis CTM glucose oxidase in presence of ascorbic acid and alpha amylase on dough properties, baking quality and shelf life of bread.

    Regression models of alveograph and texture parameters of dough and bread were adjusted. Furthermore, wheat flour containing basal additives and enriched with GOD In addition to that, the optimized formulation addition significantly reduced water activity and therefore decreased bread susceptibility to microbial spoilage. The generated models allowed to predict the behavior of wheat flour containing additives in the range of values tested and to define the additives formula that led to desired rheological and baking qualities of dough.

    This fact provides new perspectives to compensate flour quality deficiencies at the moment of selecting raw materials and technological parameters reducing the production costs and facilitating gluten free products development. Microbial and endogenous metabolic conversions of rye phytochemicals.

    Rye is one of the main cereals produced and consumed in the hemiboreal climate region. Due to its use primarily as wholegrain products, rye provides a rich source of dietary fibre as well as several classes of phytochemicals, bioactive compounds with potentially positive health implications. Here, we review the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways of phytochemical classes abundant in rye , starting from the microbial transformations occurring during the sourdough process and colonic fermentation and continuing with the endogenous metabolism.